A beautiful soul comes from within and nothing can change that.

EMISTRY
4
Occurrence and Extraction of Metals
MODULE - 6
Chemistry of Elements
Copper
India does not have rich copper ore deposits. The total reserves
of the ore in the country are estimated around 60 crore tonnes.
Major ore producing areas are Singhbum dis

EMISTRY

 4

Occurrence and Extraction of Metals

MODULE - 6

Chemistry of Elements

Copper

India does not have rich copper ore deposits. The total reserves

of the ore in the country are estimated around 60 crore tonnes.

Major ore producing areas are Singhbum district (Bihar), Balaghat

district (Madhya Pradesh) and Jhunjhunu district (Rajasthan).

Zinc and Lead India has no significant deposits of lead ores. Lead and Zinc have

been located at Zawar mines near Udaipur (Rajasthan) and at

Hazaribagh (Jharkhand), Sargipalli mines in Orissa and

Bandalamottu lead project in Andhra Pradesh. Some reserves have

been located in Gujarat and Sikkim.The total reserves are estimated

at about 360 million tonnes in which lead content is estimated to

be around 5 million tonnes and zinc to be around 16 million tonnes.

Tin

Deposits of tinstone ( )

SnO2 are found in Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)

and Orissa.

Silver

India does not possess rich silver deposits. Gold from Kolar fields

and Hutti gold fields (Karnataka) and lead-zinc ores of Zawar

mines (Rajasthan) contain some silver.

Titanium

Ilmenite ( )

FeTiO3 is recovered from beach sands of Kerala and

Tamil Nadu. The estimated reserves are around 100 to 150 million

tonnes.

Sodium :

Tincal or Native borax ( )

247 2

Na B O .10H O

 is found in Ladakh and

Kashmir.

16.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXTRACTION OF

METALS

The process of extracting the metals from their ores and refining them is called

metallurgy. The choice of the process depends upon the nature of the ore and the

type of the metal. The metal content in the ore can vary depending upon the

impurities present and chemical composition of the ore. Some common steps

involved in the extraction of metals from their ores are :

(i) Crushing and pulverization

(ii) Concentration or dressing of the ore

(iii) Calcination or roasting of the ore

(iv) Reduction of metal oxides to free metal

(v) Purification and refining of metal.

16.2.1. Crushing and Pulverization

The ore is generally obtained as big rock pieces. These big lumps of the ore are

crushed to smaller pieces by using jaw-crushers and grinders. It is easier to work

with crushed ore. The big lumps of the ore are brought in between the platEMISTRY

 4

Occurrence and Extraction of Metals

MODULE - 6

Chemistry of Elements

Copper

India does not have rich copper ore deposits. The total reserves

of the ore in the country are estimated around 60 crore tonnes.

Major ore producing areas are Singhbum district (Bihar), Balaghat

district (Madhya Pradesh) and Jhunjhunu district (Rajasthan).

Zinc and Lead India has no significant deposits of lead ores. Lead and Zinc have

been located at Zawar mines near Udaipur (Rajasthan) and at

Hazaribagh (Jharkhand), Sargipalli mines in Orissa and

Bandalamottu lead project in Andhra Pradesh. Some reserves have

been located in Gujarat and Sikkim.The total reserves are estimated

at about 360 million tonnes in which lead content is estimated to

be around 5 million tonnes and zinc to be around 16 million tonnes.

Tin

Deposits of tinstone ( )

SnO2 are found in Hazaribagh (Jharkhand)

and Orissa.

Silver

India does not possess rich silver deposits. Gold from Kolar fields

and Hutti gold fields (Karnataka) and lead-zinc ores of Zawar

mines (Rajasthan) contain some silver.

Titanium

Ilmenite ( )

FeTiO3 is recovered from beach sands of Kerala and

Tamil Nadu. The estimated reserves are around 100 to 150 million

tonnes.

Sodium :

Tincal or Native borax ( )

247 2

Na B O .10H O

 is found in Ladakh and

Kashmir.

16.2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXTRACTION OF

METALS

The process of extracting the metals from their ores and refining them is called

metallurgy. The choice of the process depends upon the nature of the ore and the

type of the metal. The metal content in the ore can vary depending upon the

impurities present and chemical composition of the ore. Some common steps

involved in the extraction of metals from their ores are :

(i) Crushing and pulverization

(ii) Concentration or dressing of the ore

(iii) Calcination or roasting of the ore

(iv) Reduction of metal oxides to free metal

(v) Purification and refining of metal.

16.2.1. Crushing and Pulverization

The ore is generally obtained as big rock pieces. These big lumps of the ore are

crushed to smaller pieces by using jaw-crushers and grinders. It is easier to work

with crushed ore. The big lumps of the ore are brought in between the plat


Richard Mutemi

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